How sensors work
A sensor converts the physical action to be measured into an electrical equivalent and processes it so that the electrical signals can be easily sent and further processed. The sensor can output whether an object is present or not present (binary) or what measurement value has been reached (analog or digital).
The main components of a sensor
A sensor consists of three main components:
(1) The sensing section contains the sensor itself which is based on a particular technology. The variety of technologies means you can select a sensor technology which fits your application.
(2) The processing circuitry converts the physical variable into an electrical variable.
(3) The signal output contains the electronics connected to a control system.
The various sensor technologies help you in detecting or measuring objects. Depending on the technology the sensors output a switching signal or a measurement value: